Dark Matter and Supernova by “Sanila Kumary Pushpavally”

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Dark Matter and Supernova

by

Sanila Kumary Pushpavally

 

 

The branch of optics that deals with the production emission and propagation of lights and its nature is called (Interference, diffraction, and polarisation) also known as physical optics.

The light consists of a stream of particles called corpuscles and these give out by a light source such as (lamp, sun, and candle) and they travelled in a large distance with great velocity. The light moves in a finite speed was polarized and could modified by refraction and reflection. Each point of wave front may be regarded as a new source of waves. This is called electromagnetic theory of light. With the electromagnetic theory of light and the propagation of waves derives two constants called electricity and magnetism. With these constants can establish frequency and wavelength electro magnetic spectrum.

The light energy is emitted by atoms in multiples of energy unit and is called quantum and its magnitude depends on the wavelength. Concentration of energy which is called photons, when light releases electrons from atoms and they were propagated like particles from the electrons.

The three different bands of the optical frequency spectrum are

1. Infrared : Band of wavelengths which is too long to be seen by the human eye

2.Visible : Band of light wavelengths that human eye responds

3.Ultraviolet : Band of wavelengths that is too short for the human eye to see

The human eye see violet on one side of the color spectrum and red on the opposite side of the spectrum. In between these extremes the eye see blue, green, yellow and orange. Two beams of light that have same wavelength are seen as same color. Mixture of two colors such as green and red will match a beam of blue. Visual response is in the form of Ultraviolet, Violet, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red and Infrared, in which UV having high frequency and infrared having very low frequency.

Reflection of light on the corpuscular theory be the reflecting surface be the path of the light corpuscles. The process of the emission of light with wave theory(Huygen) defines, the particle vibrates perpendicular to the direction of the propagation and longitudinal waves. When a stone dipped in still water it vibrates and transverse waves are produced due to the high-velocity gravitational force surface tension and energy

Displacement = ∠xoy * sin∠xoy * radius

Displacement movement or vibrating from the centre to two different surfaces of a circle at a distance of r(radius) is called displacement.

sin α/sin β=v1/v= Velocity of light in the second medium/velocity of light in the first medium(i and r are the displacements).

Refraction of light in the corpuscular theory

I is directly proportional to Amplitude

Intensity or Energy is Inverse with Frequency or Amplitude.

Examples of Circular Vibrations

Below images are examples of Circular vibrations

BD represents the particle vibrates equally(force, surface tension, electromagnetic waves, energy)

Below images are examples of Circular vibrations

Note: Electrical force and gravitational force definition explanation is written below

The comparison between the electrical force and the gravitational force is attraction and repulsion and the electrical force between the charged bodies is of q1 and q2 at separation r is given by

F=(q1*q2)∕4 *∏*ε*r*r)

Let’s consider the +q Coloumb is placed at a point on air let p is the point at which the electrical potential is to be calculated the distance point p from o is r

Repulsion and attraction(Sun and Saturn)(EF + GF and GF)

The space surrounding the electric charge in which another charge experience a force.

The attraction or repulsion is called the electric charge or electric force

The intensity of EF is = F/q0

Let a test charge plus q is placed at a point A distance x from point p

By Columb’s law the electrical force on q0 is given by

F=¼*∏*ε* q*g0/x*x

The gravitational force acting between two bodies of masses m1 and m2 at separation r is given by

Fg = G* m1*m2/r*r

Where G is known as the Gravitational constant and G= 6.67* 10*-1Nm*m/kg

Gravitational force is always attractional

Supernova(Sun and Moon) by Sanila

Supernova By Avani( My daughter)

It is independent of medium between two masses

Electrical Force is stronger and Gravitational Force is weaker than EF

EF between two fields is E=y/d

W= mg

EF on drop F is F= q*E =q* 500 newton.

Let the third point charge+4Q and +Q at a distance r from +Q = v-x

Let the third charge Q be positive

Repulsion

Repulsion, F= (q1*q2)/(4 * 3.14 *r *4)

Electric F concept

Let s consider the electric charge q located in space. If you bring another charge q0 near the charge q, then the charge q0 experiences a force of attraction or repulsion due to the charge q ,the force experienced by the charge q0 is said due to electric field created by the charge q

The space surrounding the electric charge in which the other electric charge experiences a force ,attraction or repulsion is called the electric field of the electric charge.

Electric line of force

If the electrostatic force is free then they move in the direction of the force. If the direction of the force cautiously charges the direction of the motion of the charge also changes moving along a curved path.

Electric Line of Force image shown below

Below images shows the example of the formation of spectrum of curved lines due to electro static force

The electric line of force starts from a positive to negative

Vibration due to Electric Force

The tangent drawn at any point on the line of force is given the direction of on a positive charge at the point

The true physical significance of EF appears only when we keep in a view that electrostatic interaction is only a part of fundamental force between known as electromagnetic interaction

So when two charges q1 and q2 are accelerated motion the either accelerated charge say q1 produce electromagnetic waves which propagate with the speed of light, reaches on another charge q2 and causes a force on it

Let work done and q be the positive charge and electric potential at an infinite point is

V= w/q

Due to the system of point charges electric potential has no direction. The Electric Potential at any point due to a group of point charges is found by calculating the Potential due to each charge and then adding

EF charged due to the charged spherical field image is shown above

When the light rays are passed through a curved surface or spherical surface or coming from a spherical surface, the displacement or the vibrations of images are through a curved surface(Sun image and curved image). The images will be spherical or curved images.

When electro magnetic spectrum is formed the human eye can see violet on one side and red on other side and in between other spectrums are visible. Visual response in in the form of UV, Violet, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red ,IR and Gamma Rays. The surface tension which causes the vibrations or transverse waves, displacement, energy, frequency, repulsion, attraction and electro static force, radiolescence which emits the light rays from the radio active elements, spectrum of lines from the cloud particles are more, then the light waves propagates thru curved path. When electro static force and magnetic interaction is more it produces electro magnetic waves which propagates the speed of light reaches on the other surface which causes the force on it.

Wave theory determines dark matter. The electro magnetic waves with high energy and frequency from one source(UV Filter rays) + frequency it propagates the light rays in the form of dark fringes of light(blackholes) which emits as circular coloured fringes of light on the other source which is due to the reflection and refraction.

X Variable = Rays(IR Rays, UV Rays, Gamma Rays)

Gamma Rays burst

Young’s Experiment

When two or more waves transact simultaneously on any particle on a medium displacement of the particle at any point is the superposition of the waves.

E.g: The light reflection in Saturn ring(its a formation of ice crystals which reflects the dark spectral lines) – The rays from Saturn ring reflects back and produces dark spectral lines when applies electro static force, energy from other source.

Saturn Ring formation

When Sunlight passes through one (two) hole and refracted through one-hole same energy and waves are producing the dark lines: (dark light reflections)

The first it will produce light reflections, spectral lines, then it refracts back one on the other rays and it produces the dark lines over the top of other lines. Fringes with Green light , Red light, Blue Light refracts with wavelength, energy, Amplitude and Surface tension produces violet rays. These violet rays first visible to the human eye.

(FRESMELS PRISM proves the light reflection)

Photosynthesis

Progression of the theories of light

NewtonsRing

The fringes produced by the monochromatic light are circular. The fringes are concentric circles uniform the thickness and point of contact in the centre.

The presence of the europium is a radioactive element could be the reason of the formation of radiolescence and causes dark matter.

Cellular lysosome (green; artificially colored) is a microorganism could found on the surface of the planet. Gaseous presence such as air, nitrogen, and oxygen, or noble gases such as argon and helium could be the evidence found on the surface of the planet. When adding electrical energy to the system, the components of the gas break down and the gas becomes excited, ionized, and dissociated, thus forming a plasma-chemical process. Free radicals, charged particles, photons, and UV radiation inactivate living microorganisms or cells in tissues by various mechanisms, owing to the complexity of both the plasma and the cells process gases such as air, nitrogen, and oxygen, or noble gases such as argon and helium. When adding electrical energy to the system, the components of the gas break down and the gas becomes excited, ionized, and dissociated, thus forming a plasma. Free radicals, charged particles, photons, and UV radiation inactivate living microorganisms or cells in tissues by various mechanisms, owing to the complexity of both the plasma and the cells( presence of micro organisms).

Ionization Processes

Plasma is an ionized gas. The key process in plasma is ionization, which means conversion of neutral atoms or molecules into electrons and positive ions. Thus, ionization is the first elementary plasma-chemical processes to be considered.

Supernova effects (Dark matter) of the planet Uranus with UV Filtration and Gamma rays filtration, as the result of the presence of the highly radioactive elements such as Uranium-238 and fast neutrons which emits the fluorescent green in Ultraviolet light rays and it divides into small nuclei which emit high heat which results in the Supernova absorbed by the Uranium-235 nuclei. This Supernova is the evidence of the microorganisms, photons and UV radiations, water molecules, and the energy from the surface(UV Filtration + amount of the energy released from the surface based on the frequency passed for filtering the UV Rays and Gamma Rays which is the process of emission used for the plasma cell activation and inactivation for the cells. Activation(Effects are Radio active element reaction, electromagnetic radiation, UV filtration(VIBGYOR Spectrum and the Frequency applied).The dark matter is the result of the chemical reaction of microorganisms, Radioactive elements, asteroids, clouds, water molecules, liquid plasma cells, rocks, fossils

It doesn’t not require backlight because it emits visible light and it can display deep black levels(Black holes). Dark matter does not directly interact with the radiation but through gravitational force leading to tiny ripples of cosmic background radiation.

Electroluminescence happens when applying voltages in air to the organic materials such as chemical elements that exist in air or cellulose(ionization)For eg Ca * H2 is the reaction that produces electricity to light in air .This Supernova is the evidence of the microorganisms, photons and UV radiations, water molecules, and the energy from the surface(UV filtration + amount of the energy released from the surface based on the frequency passed for filtering the UV Rays and Gamma Rays which is called the process of emission used for the plasma chemical process and inactivation for the cells.

Fluorescent colours can be chosen to obtain light emission at different wavelengths and compounds which emits green emitter(Phosphorous) electron transparent.

Dark matter

Wolfe Disk in the distant Universe

My daughter Avani’s images for the neutron star collision, nebulas and Moonsupernova

Moon Supernova

I would like to share some important findings about the planet Kepler 22b and below are the images

Kepler 22 b

Solar analogs-Solar Twins

Kepler-22b is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the Sun-like star Kepler-22. It is located about 620 light-years (190 pc) from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus.

Kepler-22b’s size is roughly twice that of Earth. It’s mass and surface composition are unknown. An Earth-like composition for the planet has been ruled out. It is likely to have a volatile-rich composition with a liquid or gaseous outer shell. The only parameters of the planet’s orbit that are currently available are its orbital period, which is about 290 days, and its inclination, which is approximately 90°. Evidence suggests that the planet has a moderate surface temperature, assuming that the surface is not subject to extreme greenhouse heating. In the absence of an atmosphere, its equilibrium temperature (assuming an Earth-like albedo) would be approximately 262 K (−11 °C), compared with Earth’s 255 K (−18 °C).

The planet’s first transit was observed on 12 May 2009. Confirmation of the existence of Kepler-22b was announced on 5 December 2011.

The host star, Kepler-22, is a G-type star that is 3% less massive than the Sun and 2% smaller in volume

It has a surface temperature of 5,518 K (5,245 °C) compared with the Sun, which has a surface temperature of 5,778 K (5,505 °C).[15] The star is about 4 billion years old. In comparison, the Sun is 4.6 billion years old

Habitability

The average distance from Kepler-22b to its host star Kepler-22 is about 15% less than the distance from Earth to the Sun, but the luminosity (light output) of Kepler-22 is about 25% less than that of the Sun. This combination of a shorter average distance from the star and a lower stellar luminosity are consistent with a moderate surface temperature at that distance, if it is assumed that the surface is not subject to extreme greenhouse heating.

Kepler 22 B there could be a chance of existing the following chemical and gaseous combinations which results the Phosphorescence

Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence. When exposed to light (radiation) of a shorter wavelength, a phosphorescent substance will glow, absorbing the light and reemitting it at a longer wavelength. Unlike fluorescence, a phosphorescent material does not immediately reemit the radiation it absorbs. Instead, a phosphorescent material absorbs some of the radiation energy and reemits it for a much longer time after the radiation source is removed. A combination of Phosphorus, Zinc, Sulfide, Strontium Aluminate results Phosphorescence

There are two, separate mechanisms that may produce phosphorescence, called triplet phosphorescence (or simply phosphorescence) and persistent phosphorescence (or persistent luminescence). Triplet phosphorescence occurs when an atom absorbs a high-energy photon, and the energy becomes locked in the spin multiplicity of the electrons, generally changing from a fluorescent “singlet state” to a slower emitting “triplet state”. The slower timescales of the reemission are associated with “forbiddenenergy state transitions in quantum mechanics. As these transitions occur relatively slowly in certain materials, absorbed radiation is reemitted at a lower intensity, ranging from a few microseconds to as much as one second after the excitation is removed.

On the other hand, persistent phosphorescence occurs when a high-energy photon is absorbed by an atom and its electron becomes trapped in a defect in the lattice of the crystalline or amorphous material. A defect such as a missing atom (vacancy defect) can trap an electron like a pitfall, storing that electron’s energy until released by a random spike of thermal (vibrational) energy. Such a substance will then emit light of gradually decreasing intensity, ranging from a few seconds to up to several hours after the original excitation.

when exposed to the mysterious invisible-light (now known to be UV light) beyond the violet end of the spectrum, Stokes formed the term from a combination of fluorspar and opalescence (preferring to use a mineral instead of a solution), albeit it was later discovered that fluorspar glows due to phosphorescence

Common pigments used in phosphorescent materials include zinc sulfide and strontium aluminate

Triplet phosphorescence

After an electron absorbs a photon of high energy, it may undergo vibrational relaxations and intersystem crossing to another spin state. Again the system relaxes vibrationally in the new spin state and eventually emits light by phosphorescence.

Persistent phosphorescence

An extremely intense pulse of short-wave UV light in a flashtube produced this blue persistent-phosphorescence in the amorphous, fused silica envelope, lasting as long as 20 minutes after the 3.5 microsecond flash.

Ideally in Kepler 22b’s luminescence is obviously due to Persistent phosphorescence.

Reference:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler-22b

By

Sanila Kumary Pushpavally

Flat 59,10 Sutton Plaza,SM1 4FT,

Sutton, London, UK.

Mob: +44 7384722684

Email: [email protected]

 

Source: GokNews.com

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